Дата выпуска аккумулятора Solite (Солите, Солайт) наносится на верхней крышке корпуса батареи двумя способами:
Дата выпуска зашифрована внутри специального кода, который может состоять из пяти, шести или семи символов.
Базовой является пятизначная структура кода. Разница только в том, что при шестизначном способе маркировки слева или справа добавляется один дополнительный символ. Если слева — то код завода, если справа – указывает на ночную смену. При семизначном способе маркировки присутствуют оба дополнительных символа: правый и левый.
Таблица для расшифровки дня месяца.
Где посмотреть дату выпуска аккумулятора Bosch – ТОП АКБ
Многих клиентов магазина ТОП-АКБ интересует дата выпуска аккумулятора Бош, который они собираются приобретать. Скажем прямо: в случае с новым товаром эта информация не имеет под собой какой-либо практической ценности.
Аккумулятор полностью готов к работе при условии, что напряжения разомкнутой цепи и под нагрузкой находятся в пределах нормы 12,4-12-7 и 10-11 Вольт соответственно. Курьер или продавец в магазине проверяет каждую батарею нагрузочной вилкой в присутствии покупателя. Показатели фиксируются в гарантийном талоне. Из официального письма компании-производителя (Johnson Controls) следует, что нормальный срок хранения для их батарей (без подзарядки) составляет 1 год и 8 месяцев. Данную информацию Вы всегда можете уточнить у официального представителя Бош в Росии.
Аккумулятор Бош — подделка или оригинал? Как отличить.
В последние несколько лет наблюдается снижение качества аккумуляторов под торговой маркой Bosch. Данная тенденция относится как к внешнему виду (корпус, маркировка, клеммы), так и к сроку службы аккумулятора. Неопытному потребителю может показаться, что он имеет дело с подделкой. В реальности, подделывать автомобильные аккумуляторы – задача неблагодарная и нерентабельная. За несколько лет работы мы ни разу не сталкивались с подделками. В промышленных масштабах такую продукцию выпускать может только крупное предприятие с официальным статусом.
Настоящая причина отличия старых аккумуляторов (тех, что служили по 5-10 лет) и новых гораздо банальнее – это ухудшение качества производства. Некогда надежную марку Бош превратили в настоящий «товар широкого потребления». В примере ниже показаны две одинаковые модели Bosch S4 021, одна 2013 года выпуска, другая 2019 года. На фото видно, что на старой батарее маркировка ровная и четкая, а на новой выполнена кое-как. Кликните на картинку, чтобы увеличить:
На фотографиях в самом начале страницы приведен пример маркировки даты выпуска на аккумуляторе Bosch S4 009:
Где четвертый по порядку символ «8» – это последняя цифра года выпуска (2018)
Пятый и шестой символ «58» — код месяца (октябрь).
Для расшифровки других аналогичных кодов можно воспользоваться таблицей ниже:
Как узнать дату изготовления аккумулятора
При выборе АКБ в первую очередь смотрят на имя производителя, перечень используемых в продукте технологий, цену и т.д. Перечисленные выше факторы играют роль при выборе батареи. Но несть еще один пункт при покупке АКБ это дата производства. Чем дольше АКБ пролежала на складе, тем меньше она должна нравится, ведь со временем она теряет свойства. За два года хранения на складе АКБ теряет не малый процент своих свойств. Поэтому при покупке АКБ в первую очередь стоит обращать внимание на дату производства.
Определение года выпуска аккумулятора.
В большинстве случаев необходимые для анализа цифры выбиваются, выжигаются лазером на пластике корпуса батареи. Некоторые бренды используют цвеьовую маркировку, по которой определяется год производства. У каждой марки или группы производителей своя, уникальная, система обозначений, международного стандарта нет.
Смотрим в данном случае на производственный код, который нанесен на верхнюю крышку. 4 цифра это год выпуска,5 и 6 цифры обозначают код месяца пыпуска 17-январь, 18-февраль, 19-март, 20-апрель, 53-май, 54-июнь, 55-июль, 56-август, 57-сентябрь, 58-октябрь, 59-ноябрь, 60-декабрь.
Код маркировки нанесен на верхней крышке. Аккумуляторные батареи завода Актех маркируют по принципу ММ.ГГ.
Пример маркировки: 0511
Дата изготовления — май 2011 года.
Тюменский медведь, Tyumen Batbear, Arctic Batbear, Ямал
Код маркировки наносится на корпус батареи с противоположной стороны от центральной этикетки при помощи лазерной перфорации. Шесть цифр на задней стенке батареи расшифровываются как ММ.ГГГГ.
Пример маркировки: 102011
Дата изготовления — октябрь 2011 года.
Titan (Standart, Euro Silver, Arctic Silver, Asia Silver, Vaiper)
С августа 2011 дата изготовления наносится при помощи принтера и специальной цифро-буквенной комбинации. Размещение – на крышке АКБ, по центру.
Код содержит 5 символов: 12345
1 – день недели
2, 3 – порядковый номер недели в году (от 01 до 53)
4 – год (латинская буква): 2011 (H), 2012 (V), 2013 (N), 2014 (Z), 2015 (P), 2016 (A), 2017 (S), 2018 (T), 2019 (X), 2020 (L).
5 – номер смены.
Пример маркировки: 208Н1
2 — вторник
08 — восьмая неделя
Н — 2011 год
1 — первая смена.
АКБ выпущен 22 февраля 2011 года в первую смену.
Маркировка до августа 2011 г.: ТИТАН, ТИТАН ARCTIC
1, 2-я цифры – число
3, 4-я цифры – месяц
5, 6-я цифры – год
7-я цифра – заводская линия
Дата производства аккумулятора нанесена посредством лазерной перфорации на верхней части корпуса АКБ. Код состоит из шести цифр, первая из которых – номер линии, вторая – год, третья, четвертая – месяц, пятая, шестая – число.
Пример маркировки: 210819
Батарея произведена на второй линии 19 августа 2011 года.
На аккумуляторах код нанесен на верхнюю часть корпуса при помощи лазера. Из четырнадцати символов третий, четвертый обозначают год, а пятый, шестой – неделю.
Код F2 1222, в этом коде 12 – год, 22 неделя.
Расшифровка кода (по первым 2-м символам в маркировке на крышке (под ручкой)).
Первый символ — последняя цифра года. Второй символ — (месяц) буква латинского алфавита, порядковый номер которой — номер месяца: А — январь, В — февраль, С — март, D — апрель, Е — май, F — июнь, G — июль, H — август, J — сентябрь, K — октябрь, L — ноябрь, M — декабрь, буква «I» — в маркировке отсутствует.
Пример маркировки: 2KJD24
Расшифровка кода: 2 — 2012 год, K — октябрь.
1. Буква — завод (K-Завод в г.Кенджу)
2. Номер линии (A — 1-я линия, B — 2-я линия и т.д.)
3 и 4. Буква и цифра. Число месяца выпуска: W=0, X=10, Y=20, Z=30,-это десятки, а цифра — единицы.
5. Буквы I — T. Месяц выпуска: I-январь, J-февраль, L-апрель, М-май, N-июнь, O-июль, Р-август, Q- сентябрь, R-октябрь, S-ноябрь, Т-декабрь.
6. Год выпуска (последняя цифра года 0 — 9)
7. Н- ночная смена (дневная не указывается)
Пример маркировки Solite: KCW3LOH
K — Завод в Г.Кенджу, С — 3 линия, W3- число месяца – 23, L – апрель, 0 – 2010 год, H – ночная смена.
По состоянию на ноябрь 2015, видимо, ночную смену указывать перестали:
Предпоследняя буква означает месяц производства :
I — T — месяц производства ( I-январь, J-февраль, K-март, L-апрель, M-май, N-июнь, O- июль, P-август, Q-сентябрь, R-октябрь, S-ноябрь, T-декабрь).
Последняя цифра — год производства
4 — 2014
Встречается маркировка, в которой нет первой буквы «К».
Место нанесения маркировки – возле плюсовой клеммы. Пример: 17 10 12 (17 октября 2012 года).
Tyumen Battery — ТЮМЕНЬ STANDART и PREMIUM
Место нанесения маркировки – продольная сторона крышки.
Пример: 12 11 09 5, где 12 – месяц (декабрь), 11 – последние цифры года (2011), 09 – день, 5 – номер бригады.
Дата выпуска находится на верхней части крышки. 6 цифр и буква:
1,2 – месяц; 3,4 – год; 5,6 – день; буква — шифр смены.
Пример: 07 14 15 M будет читаться как 15 июля 2014 г.
90000 How to Find the Manufacture Date on Interstate Batteries 90001 90002 90003 by James Stevens 90004 90005 90002 Ablestock.com/AbleStock.com/Getty Images 90005 90002 Interstate Battery System International Inc. manufactures vehicle and other types of batteries. All Interstate batteries are stamped with a coded date, which Interstate refers to as the shipping date. Interstate distribution centers also put another date on the batteries because batteries get recharged if they remain in stock for more than three months.Finding the manufacture date on Interstate batteries is a fairly straightforward task, as long as you know what the codes mean. 90005 90010 Step 1 90011 90002 Look down at the top of your Interstate battery to find the manufacture date code. You can only see the code from directly above the battery. 90005 90010 Step 2 90011 90002 Check the corners of the battery and look for an alphanumeric four- or five-digit code. The code is engraved into the battery casing. If you can not find a code engraved on one of the corners, check the positive battery terminal, labeled with a «+» sign; some Interstate batteries have the code engraved on the terminal.90005 90010 Step 3 90011 90002 Write down the code so you can work out the manufacture date of your Interstate battery. 90005 90010 Step 4 90011 90002 Look at the first digit you wrote down. It is a letter and represents the month of manufacture. For example, «C» indicates March and «F» stands for June. However, if the code is on the positive battery terminal, the letter for the month is preceded by a «U,» so February appears as «UB.» 90005 90010 Step 5 90011 90002 Look at the second digit or, if the code is on the positive battery terminal, the third.It is a number and represents the year of manufacture, so «4» stands for 2004, while «0» indicates 2010. The cycle runs for only 10 years and then repeats, so 2011 is the same as 2001 and has the number «1 «as the second digit. The remaining two or three digits signify the place that the Interstate battery is manufactured. 90005 90010 Step 6 90011 90002 Check the top of the battery to see if there is another code. It may be engraved, or it may be a stick-on label. It has two digits and means that your battery was recharged at the distribution center.90005 90002 Write down the code, which is the same as the one for new batteries. The first digit is a letter, and the second is a number. For example, if the code is D7, your Interstate battery was recharged in April 2007. 90005 90010 More Articles 90011.90000 Charge in seconds, last months a 90001
90002 While smartphones, smart homes and even smart wearables are growing ever more advanced, they’re still limited by power. The battery has not advanced in decades. But we’re on the verge of a power revolution. 90003 90002 Big technology and car companies are all too aware of the limitations of lithium-ion batteries.While chips and operating systems are becoming more efficient to save power we’re still only looking at a day or two of use on a smartphone before having to recharge. 90003 90002 While it may be some time before we get a week’s life out of our phones, development is progressing well. We’ve collected all the best battery discoveries that could be with us soon, from over the air charging to super-fast 30-second re-charging. Hopefully, you’ll be seeing this tech in your gadgets soon. 90003 90008 SVOLT unveils cobolt free batteries for EVs 90009 90002 While the emission-reducing properties of electric vehicles are widely accepted, there’s still controversy around the batteries, particularly the use of rare earth metals like cobolt.SVOLT, based in Changzhou, China, has announced that it has manufactured cobolt-free batteries designed for the EV market. Aside from reducing the rare earth metals, the company is claiming that they have a higher energy density, which could result in ranges of up to 800km (500 miles) for electric cars, while also lengthening the life of the battery and increasing the safety. Exactly where we’ll see these batteries we do not know, but the company has confirmed that it’s working with a large European manufacturer.90003 Timo Ikonen, University of Eastern Finland 90008 A step closer to silicon anode lithium-ion batteries 90009 90002 Looking to overcome the problem of unstable silicon in lithium-ion batteries, researchers at University of Eastern Finland have developed a method to produce a hybrid anode , using mesoporous silicon microparticles and carbon nanotubes. Ultimately the aim is to replace graphite as the anode in batteries and use silicon, which has ten times the capacity. Using this hybrid material improves the performance of the battery, while the silicon material is sustainably produced from barley husk ash.90003 Monash University 90008 Lithium-sulphur batteries could outperform Li-Ion, have lower environmental impact 90009 90002 Monash University researchers have developed a lithium-sulphur battery that can power a smartphone for 5 days, outperforming lithium-ion. The researchers have fabricated this battery, have patents and the interest of manufacturers. The group has funding for further research in 2020 року, saying that continued research into cars and grid use will continue. 90003 90002 The new battery technology is said to have a lower environmental impact than lithium-ion and lower manufacturing costs, while offering the potential to power a vehicle for 1000km (620 miles), or a smartphone for 5 days.90003 90008 IBM’s battery is sourced from sea water and out-performs lithium-ion 90009 90002 IBM Research is reporting that it has discovered a new battery chemistry that is free from heavy metals like nickel and cobalt and could potentially out-perform lithium-ion. IBM Research says that this chemistry has never been used in combination in a battery before and that the materials can be extracted from seawater. 90003 90002 The performance of the battery is promising, with IBM Research saying that it can out-perform lithium-ion in a number of different areas — it’s cheaper to manufacture, it can charge faster than lithium-ion and can pack in both higher power and energy densities.All this is available in a battery with low flammability of the electrolytes. 90003 90002 IBM Research points out that these advantages will make its new battery technology suitable for electric vehicles, and it is working with Mercedes-Benz amongst others to develop this technology into a viable commercial battery. 90003 Panasonic 90008 Panasonic battery management system 90009 90002 While lithium-ion batteries are everywhere and growing in use cases, the management of those batteries, including determining when those batteries have reached the end of their life is difficult.Panasonic, working with Professor Masahiro Fukui of Ritsumeikan University, has come up with a new battery management technology that will make it a lot easier monitor batteries and determine the residual value of lithium-ion in them. 90003 90002 Panasonic says that its new technology can be easily applied with a change to the battery management system, which will make it easier to monitor and evaluate batteries with multiple stacked cells, the sort of thing you might find in an electric car. Panasonic that this system will help the drive towards sustainability by being able to better manage reuse and recycling of lithium-ion batteries.90003 90008 Asymmetric temperature modulation 90009 90002 Research has demonstrated a charging method that takes us a step closer to extreme fast charging — XFC — which aims to deliver 200 miles of electric car range in about 10 minutes with 400kW charging. One of the issues with charging is Li plating in batteries, so the asymmetric temperature modulation method charges at a higher temperature to reduce plating, but limits that to 10 minutes cycles, avoiding solid-electrolyte-interphase growth, which can reduce battery life.The method is reported to reduce battery degradation while allowing XFC charging. 90003 Pocket-lint 90040 Sand battery gives three times more battery life 90041 90002 This alternative type of lithium-ion battery uses silicon to achieve three times better performance than current graphite li-ion batteries. The battery is still lithium-ion like the one found in your smartphone, but it uses silicon instead of graphite in the anodes. 90003 90002 Scientists at the University of California Riverside have been focused on nano silicon for a while, but it’s been degrading too quickly and is tough to produce in large quantities.By using sand it can be purified, powdered then ground with salt and magnesium before being heated to remove oxygen resulting in pure silicon. This is porous and three-dimensional which helps in performance and, potentially, the life-span of the batteries. We originally picked up on this research in 2014 and now it’s coming to fruition. 90003 90002 Silanano is a battery tech startup that’s bringing this technique to market and has seen big investment from companies like Daimler and BMW. The company say that its solution can be dropped into existing lithium-ion battery manufacturing, so it’s set for scalable deployment, promising 20 per cent battery performance boost now, or 40 per cent in the near future.90003 90040 Capturing energy from Wi-Fi 90041 90002 While wireless inductive charging is common, being able to capture energy from Wi-Fi or other electromagnetic waves remains a challenge. A team of researchers, however, has developed a rectenna (radio wave harvesting antenna) that is only several atoms think, making it incredibly flexible. 90003 90002 The idea is that devices can incorporate this molybdenum disulphide-based rectenna so that AC power can be harvested from Wi-Fi in the air and converted to DC, either to recharge a battery or power a device directly.That could see powered medical pills without the need for an internal battery (safer for the patient), or mobile devices that do not need to be connected to a power supply to recharge. 90003 90040 Energy harvested from the device owner 90041 90002 You could be the source of power for your next device, if research into TENGs comes to fruition. A TENG — or triboelectric nanogenerator — is a power harvesting technology which captures the electric current generated through contact of two materials.90003 90002 A research team at Surrey’s Advanced Technology Institute and the University of Surrey have given an insight into how this technology might be put into place to power things like wearable devices. While we’re some way from seeing it in action, the research should give designers the tools they need to effectively understand and optimise future TENG implementation. 90003 90040 Gold nanowire batteries 90041 90002 Great minds over at the University of California Irvine have cracked nanowire batteries that can withstand plenty of recharging.The result could be future batteries that do not die. 90003 90002 Nanowires, a thousand times thinner than a human hair, pose a great possibility for future batteries. But they’ve always broken down when recharging. This discovery uses gold nanowires in a gel electrolyte to avoid that. In fact, these batteries were tested recharging over 200,000 times in three months and showed no degradation at all. 90003 90040 Solid state lithium-ion 90041 90002 Solid state batteries traditionally offer stability but at the cost of electrolyte transmissions.A paper published by Toyota scientists writes about their tests of a solid state battery which uses sulfide superionic conductors. All this means a superior battery. 90003 90002 The result is a battery that can operate at super capacitor levels to completely charge or discharge in just seven minutes — making it ideal for cars. Since it’s solid state that also means it’s far more stable and safer than current batteries. The solid-state unit should also be able to work in as low as minus 30 degrees Celsius and up to one hundred.90003 90002 The electrolyte materials still pose challenges so do not expect to see these in cars soon, but it’s a step in the right direction towards safer, faster-charging batteries. 90003 90040 Grabat graphene batteries 90041 90002 Graphene batteries have the potential to be one of the most superior available. Grabat has developed graphene batteries that could offer electric cars a driving range of up to 500 miles on a charge. 90003 90002 Graphenano, the company behind the development, says the batteries can be charged to full in just a few minutes and can charge and discharge 33 times faster than lithium ion.Discharge is also crucial for things like cars that want vast amounts of power in order to pull away quickly. 90003 90002 There’s no word on if Grabat batteries are currently being used in any products, but the company has batteries available for cars, drones, bikes and even the home. 90003 90040 Laser-made micro supercapacitors 90041 Rice Univeristy 90002 Scientists at Rice University have made a breakthrough in micro-supercapacitors. Currently, they are expensive to make but using lasers that could soon change.90003 90002 By using lasers to burn electrode patterns into sheets of plastic manufacturing costs and effort drop massively. The result is a battery that can charge 50 times faster than current batteries and discharge even slower than current supercapacitors. They’re even tough, able to work after being bent over 10,000 times in testing. 90003 90040 Foam batteries 90041 90002 Prieto believes the future of batteries is 3D. The company has managed to crack this with its battery that uses a copper foam substrate.90003 90002 This means these batteries will not only be safer, thanks to no flammable electrolyte, but they will also offer longer life, faster charging, five times higher density, be cheaper to make and be smaller than current offerings. 90003 90002 Prieto aims to place its batteries into small items first, like wearables. But it says the batteries can be upscaled so we could see them in phones and maybe even cars in the future. 90003 Carphone Warehouse 90040 Foldable battery is paper-like but tough 90041 90002 The Jenax J.Flex battery has been developed to make bendable gadgets possible. The paper-like battery can fold and is waterproof meaning it can be integrated into clothing and wearables. 90003 90002 The battery has already been created and has even been safety tested, including being folded over 200,000 times without losing performance. 90003 Nick Bilton / The New York Times 90040 uBeam over the air charging 90041 90002 uBeam uses ultrasound to transmit electricity. Power is turned into sound waves, inaudible to humans and animals, which are transmitted and then converted back to power upon reaching the device.90003 90002 The uBeam concept was stumbled upon by 25-year-old astrobiology graduate Meredith Perry. She started the company that will make it possible to charge gadgets over the air using a 5mm thick plate. These transmitters can be attached to walls, or made into decorative art, to beam power to smartphones and laptops. The gadgets just need a thin receiver in order to receive the charge. 90003 StoreDot 90040 StoreDot charges mobiles in 30 seconds 90041 90002 StoreDot, a start-up born from the nanotechnology department at Tel Aviv University, has developed the StoreDot charger.It works with current smartphones and uses biological semiconductors made from naturally occurring organic compounds known as peptides — short chains of amino acids — which are the building blocks of proteins. 90003 90002 The result is a charger that can recharge smartphones in 60 seconds. The battery comprises «non-flammable organic compounds encased in a multi-layer safety-protection structure that prevents over-voltage and heating», so there should be no issues with it exploding. 90003 90002 The company has also revealed plans to build a battery for electric vehicles that charges in five minutes and offers a range of 300 miles.90003 90002 There’s no word on when StoreDot batteries will be available on a global scale — we were expecting them to arrive in 2017 — but when they do we expect them to become incredibly popular. 90003 Pocket-lint 90040 Transparent solar charger 90041 90002 Alcatel has demoed a mobile phone with a transparent solar panel over the screen that would let users charge their phone by simply placing it in the sun. 90003 90002 Although it’s not likely to be commercially available for some time, the company hopes that it will go some way to solving the daily issues of never having enough battery power.The phone will work with direct sunlight as well as standard lights, in the same way regular solar panels. 90003 Phienergy 90040 Aluminium-air battery gives 1,100 mile drive on a charge 90041 90002 A car has managed to drive 1,100 miles on a single battery charge. The secret to this super range is a type of battery technology called aluminium-air that uses oxygen from the air to fill its cathode. This makes it far lighter than liquid filled lithium-ion batteries to give car a far greater range.90003 Bristol Robotics Laboratory 90040 Urine powered batteries 90041 90002 The Bill Gates Foundation is funding further research by Bristol Robotic Laboratory who discovered batteries that can be powered by urine. It’s efficient enough to charge a smartphone which the scientists have already shown off. But how does it work? 90003 90002 Using a Microbial Fuel Cell, micro-organisms take the urine, break it down and output electricity. 90003 90040 Sound powered 90041 90002 Researchers in the UK have built a phone that is able to charge using ambient sound in the atmosphere around it.90003 90002 The smartphone was built using a principle called the piezoelectric effect. Nanogenerators were created that harvest ambient noise and convert it into electric current. 90003 90002 The nanorods even respond to the human voice, meaning chatty mobile users could actually power their own phone while they talk. 90003 90040 Twenty times faster charge, Ryden dual carbon battery 90041 90002 Power Japan Plus has already announced this new battery technology called Ryden dual carbon. Not only will it last longer and charge faster than lithium but it can be made using the same factories where lithium batteries are built.90003 90002 The batteries use carbon materials which mean they are more sustainable and environmentally friendly than current alternatives. It also means the batteries will charge twenty times faster than lithium ion. They will also be more durable, with the ability to last up to 3,000 charge cycles, plus they are safer with lower chance of fire or explosion. 90003 90040 Sodium-ion batteries 90041 90002 Scientists in Japan are working on new types of batteries that do not need lithium like your smartphone battery.These new batteries will use sodium, one of the most common materials on the planet rather than rare lithium — and they’ll be up to seven times more efficient than conventional batteries. 90003 90002 Research into sodium-ion batteries has been going on since the eighties in an attempt to find a cheaper alternative to lithium. By using salt, the sixth most common element on the planet, batteries can be made much cheaper. Commercialising the batteries is expected to begin for smartphones, cars and more in the next five to 10 years.90003 Upp 90040 Upp hydrogen fuel cell charger 90041 90002 The Upp hydrogen fuel cell portable charger is available now. It uses hydrogen to power your phone keeping you off the gird and remaining environmentally friendly. 90003 90002 One hydrogen cell will provide five full charges of a mobile phone (25Wh capacity per cell). And the only by-product produced is water vapour. A USB type A socket means it will charge most USB devices with a 5V, 5W, 1000mA output. 90003 90040 Batteries with built-in fire extinguisher 90041 90002 It’s not uncommon for lithium-ion batteries to overheat, catch on fire and possibly even explode.The battery in the Samsung Galaxy Note 7 is a prime example. Researchers at Stanford university have come up with lithium-ion batteries with built-in fire extinguishers. 90003 90002 The battery has a component called triphenyl phosphate, which is commonly used as a flame retardant in electronics, added to the plastic fibres to help keep the positive and negative electrodes apart. If the battery’s temperature rises above 150 degrees C, the plastic fibres melt and the triphenyl phosphate chemical is released.Research shows this new method can stop batteries from catching fire in 0.4 seconds. 90003 Mike Zimmerman 90040 Batteries that are safe from explosion 90041 90002 Lithium-ion batteries have a rather volatile liquid electrolyte porous material layer sandwiched between the anode and cathode layers. Mike Zimmerman, a researcher at Tufts University in Massachusetts, has developed a battery that has double the capacity of lithium-ion ones, but without the inherent dangers. 90003 90002 Zimmerman’s battery is incredibly thin, being slightly thicker than two credit cards, and swaps out the electrolyte liquid with a plastic film that has similar properties.It can withstand being pierced, shredded, and can be exposed to heat as it’s not flammable. There’s still a lot of research to be done before the technology could make it to market, but it’s good to know safer options are out there. 90003 90040 Liquid Flow batteries 90041 90002 Harvard scientists have developed a battery that stores its energy in organic molecules dissolved in neutral pH water. The researchers say this new method will let the Flow battery last an exceptionally long time compared to the current lithium-ion batteries.90003 90002 It’s unlikely we’ll see the technology in smartphones and the like, as the liquid solution associated with Flow batteries is stored in large tanks, the larger the better. It’s thought they could be an ideal way to store energy created by renewable energy solutions such as wind and solar. 90003 90002 Indeed, research from Stanford University has used liquid metal in a flow battery with potentially great results, claiming double the voltage of conventional flow batteries. The team has suggested this might be a great way to store intermittent energy sources, like wind or solar, for rapid release to the grid on demand.90003 90002 IBM and ETH Zurich and have developed a much smaller liquid flow battery that could potentially be used in mobile devices. This new battery claims to be able to not only supply power to components, but cool them at the same time. The two companies have discovered two liquids that are up to the task, and will be used in a system that can produce 1.4 Watts of power per square cm, with 1 Watt of power reserved for powering the battery. 90003 90040 Zap & Go Carbon-ion battery 90041 90002 Oxford-based company ZapGo has developed and produced the first carbon-ion battery that’s ready for consumer use now.A carbon-ion battery combines the superfast charging capabilities of a supercapacitor, with the performance of a Lithium-ion battery, all while being completely recyclable. 90003 90002 The company has a powerbank charger that be fully charged in five minutes, and will then charge a smartphone up to full in two hours. 90003 90040 Zinc-air batteries 90041 90002 Scientists at Sydney University believe they’ve come up with a way of manufacturing zinc-air batteries for much cheaper than current methods.Zinc-air batteries can be considered superior to lithium-ion, because they do not catch fire. The only problem is they rely on expensive components to work. 90003 90002 Sydney Uni has managed to create a zinc-air battery without the need for the expensive components, but rather some cheaper alternatives. Safer, cheaper batteries could be on their way! 90003 90040 Smart clothing 90041 90002 Researchers at the University of Surrey are developing a way of you being able to use your clothing as a source of power.The battery is called a Triboelectric Nanogenerators (TENGs), which converts movement into stored energy. The stored electricity can then be used to power mobile phones or devices such as Fitbit fitness trackers. 90003 90002 The technology could be applied to more than just clothing too, it could be integrated into the pavement, so when people constantly walk over it, it can store electricity which can then be used to power streelamps, or in a car’s tyre so it can power a car. 90003 90040 Stretchable batteries 90041 90002 Engineers at the University of California in San Diego have developed a stretchable biofuel cell that can generate electricity from sweat.The energy generated is said to be enough to power LEDs and Bluetooth radios, meaning it could one day power wearable devices like smartwatches and fitness trackers. 90003 90040 Samsung’s graphene battery 90041 90002 Samsung has managed to develop «graphene balls» that are capable of boosting the capacity of its current lithium-ion batteries by 45 per cent, and and recharging five times faster than current batteries. To put that into context, Samsung says its new graphene-based battery can be recharged fully in 12 minutes, compared to roughly an hour for the current unit.90003 90002 Samsung also says it has uses beyond smartphones, saying it could be used for electric vehicles as it can withstand temperatures up to 60 degrees Celsius. 90003 90040 Safer, faster charging of current Lithium-ion batteries 90041 90002 Scientists at WMG at the University of Warwick have developed a new technology that allows current Lithium-ion batteries to be charged up to five times faster that current recommended limits. The technology constantly measures a battery’s temperature far more precisely than current methods.90003 90002 Scientists have found that current batteries can in fact be pushed beyond their recommended limits without affecting performance or overheating. Maybe we do not need any of the other new batteries mentioned at all! 90003
.90000 The history and development of batteries 90001
Batteries have come a long way since their beginning back in 250BC. Credit: Flickr / Patty, CC BY-NC-SA
90003 Batteries are so ubiquitous today that they’re almost invisible to us. Yet they are a remarkable invention with a long and storied history, and an equally exciting future.
90004 90003 A battery is essentially a device that stores chemical energy that is converted into electricity.Basically, batteries are small chemical reactors, with the reaction producing energetic electrons, ready to flow through the external device. 90004
90003 Batteries have been with us for a long time. In 1 938 the Director of the Baghdad Museum found what is now referred to as the «Baghdad Battery» in the basement of the museum. Analysis dated it at around 250BC and of Mesopotamian origin. 90004
90003 Controversy surrounds this earliest example of a battery but suggested uses include electroplating, pain relief or a religious tingle.90004
90003 American scientist and inventor Benjamin Franklin first used the term «battery» in тисячу сімсот сорок дев’ять when he was doing experiments with electricity using a set of linked capacitors. 90004
90003 The first true battery was invented by the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta in 1800. Volta stacked discs of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) separated by cloth soaked in salty water. 90004
90003 Wires connected to either end of the stack produced a continuous stable current. Each cell (a set of a Cu and a Zn disc and the brine) produces 0.76 Volts (V). A multiple of this value is obtained given by the number of cells that are stacked together. 90004
90003 One of the most enduring batteries, the lead-acid battery, was invented in 1859 and is still the technology used to start most internal combustion engine cars today. It is the oldest example of rechargeable battery. 90004
90003 Today batteries come in a range of sizes from large Megawatt sizes, which store the power from solar farms or substations to guarantee stable supply in entire villages or islands, down to tiny batteries like those used in electronic watches.90004
90003 Batteries are based on different chemistries, which generate basic cell voltages typically in the 1.0 to 3.6 V range. The stacking of the cells in series increases the voltage, while their connection in parallel enhances the supply of current. This principle is used to add up to the required voltages and currents, all the way to the Megawatt sizes. 90004
90003 There is now much anticipation that battery technology is about to take another leap with new models being developed with enough capacity to store the power generated with domestic solar or wind systems and then power a home at more convenient (generally night) time for a few days 90004
90003 90026 How do batteries work? 90027 90004
90003 When a battery is discharged the chemical reaction produces some extra electrons as the reaction occurs.An example of a reaction that produces electrons is the oxidation of iron to produce rust. Iron reacts with oxygen and gives up electrons to the oxygen to produce iron oxide. 90004
90003 The standard construction of a battery is to use two metals or compounds with different chemical potentials and separate them with a porous insulator. The chemical potential is the energy stored in the atoms and bonds of the compounds, which is then imparted to the moving electrons, when these are allowed to move through the connected external device.90004
90003 A conducting fluid such as salt and water is used to transfer soluble ions from one metal to the other during the reaction and is called the electrolyte. 90004
90003 The metal or compound that loses the electrons during discharge is called the anode and the metal or compound that accepts the electrons is called the cathode. This flow of electrons from the anode to the cathode through the external connection is what we use to run our electronic devices. 90004
90003 90026 Primary vs rechargeable batteries 90027 90004
A typical car battery.Credit: Flickr / Asim Bharwani, CC BY-NC-ND
90003 When the reaction that produces the flow of electrons can not be reversed the battery is referred to as a primary battery. When one of the reactants is consumed the battery is flat. 90004
90003 The most common primary battery is the zinc-carbon battery. It was found that when the electrolyte is an alkali, the batteries lasted much longer. These are the alkali batteries we buy from the supermarket. 90004
90003 The challenge of disposing with such primary batteries was to find a way to reuse them, by recharging the batteries.This becomes more essential as the batteries become larger, and frequently replacing them is not commercially viable. 90004
90003 One of the earliest rechargeable batteries, the nickel-cadmium battery (NiCd), also uses an alkali as an electrolyte. In 1989 nickel-metal hydrogen batteries (NiMH) were developed, and had a longer life than NiCd batteries. 90004
90003 These types of batteries are very sensitive to overcharging and overheating during charge, therefore the charge rate is controlled below a maximum rate.Sophisticated controllers can speed up the charge, without taking less than a few hours. 90004
90003 In most other simpler chargers, the process typically takes overnight. 90004
90003 Portable applications — such as mobile phones and laptop computers — are constantly looking for maximum, most compact stored energy. While this increases the risk of a violent discharge, it is manageable using current rate limiters in the mobile phone batteries because of the overall small format. 90004
90003 But as larger applications of batteries are contemplated the safety in large format and large quantity of cells has become a more significant consideration.90004
90003 90026 First great leap forward: lithium-ion batteries 90027 90004
90003 New technologies often demand more compact, higher capacity, safe, rechargeable batteries. 90004
90003 In 1980, the American physicist Professor John Goodenough invented a new type of lithium battery in which the lithium (Li) could migrate through the battery from one electrode to the other as a Li + ion. 90004
90003 Lithium is one of the lightest elements in the periodic table and it has one of the largest electrochemical potentials, therefore this combination produces some of the highest possible voltages in the most compact and lightest volumes.90004
90003 This is the basis for the lithium-ion battery. In this new battery, lithium is combined with a transition metal — such as cobalt, nickel, manganese or iron — and oxygen to form the cathode. During recharging when a voltage is applied, the positively charged lithium ion from the cathode migrates to the graphite anode and becomes lithium metal. 90004
90003 Because lithium has a strong electrochemical driving force to be oxidised if allowed, it migrates back to the cathode to become a Li + ion again and gives up its electron back to the cobalt ion.The movement of electrons in the circuit gives us a current that we can use. 90004
90003 90026 The second great leap forward: nano technology 90027 90004
90003 Depending on the transition metal used in the lithium-ion battery, the cell can have a higher capacity but can be more reactive and susceptible to a phenomenon known as thermal runaway. 90004
90003 In the case of lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO 90080 2 90081) batteries made by Sony in the 1990s, this led to many such batteries catching fire.The possibility of making battery cathodes from nano-scale material and hence more reactive was out of the question. 90004
90003 But in the 1990s Goodenough again made a huge leap in battery technology by introducing a stable lithium-ion cathode based on lithium iron and phosphate. 90004
90003 This cathode is thermally stable. It also means that nano-scale lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 90080 4 90081) or lithium ferrophosphate (LFP) materials can now be made safely into large format cells that can be rapidly charged and discharged.90004
90003 Many new applications now exist for these new cells, from power tools to hybrid and electric vehicle. Perhaps the most important application will be the storage of domestic electric energy for households. 90004
The first mobile phone had a large battery and short battery life — modern mobile and smart phones demand smaller batteries but longer lasting power.
90003 90026 Electric cars 90027 90004
90003 The leader in manufacturing this new battery format for vehicles is the Tesla electric vehicle company, which has plans for building «Giga-plants» for production of these batteries.90004
90003 The size of the lithium battery pack for the Tesla Model S is an impressive 85kWh. 90004
90003 This is also more than enough for domestic household needs, which is why there has been so much speculation as to what Tesla’s founder Elon Musk is preparing to reveal this week. 90004
90003 A modular battery design may create battery formats that are somewhat interchangeable and suited to both vehicle and domestic applications without need for redesign or reconstruction.90004
90003 Perhaps we are about to witness the next generational shift in energy generation and storage driven by the ever-improving capabilities of the humble battery.
Beyond the lithium ion-a significant step toward a better performing battery
90116 This story is published courtesy of The Conversation (under Creative Commons-Attribution / No derivatives).90117
90122 Citation 90123:
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retrieved 14 July 2020
from https: // phys.org / news / 2015-04-history-batteries.html
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.90000 Rechargeable batteries: facts, myths and explosions 90001 90002 Should you let your phone go completely flat before recharging? Why do lithium batteries explode? And are not they bad for the environment? 90003 90002 Rechargeable batteries already power our phones, laptops and toothbrushes. With solar battery storage and electric cars set to take off, it’s time to sort the battery fact from fiction. 90003 90006 Lithium ion batteries 90007 90002 A decade ago nicad (nickel cadmium) and nickel-metal hydride rechargeable batteries were pretty common in phones and laptops, but with the push for more energy in lighter, smaller mobile units, lithium ion batteries took over.90003 90002 Lithium owes its market dominance to being a lightweight. At number three in the periodic table, it’s the lightest metal, which really helps it store more energy for the same weight and volume. 90003 90002 Smart phones, tablets and new laptops all use lithium ion batteries. And with electric cars and the new solar storage systems using lithium ion batteries too, the technology will be around for a while. 90003 90002 And the high energy for its size and weight (energy density) is not the only benefit that lithium batteries offer.90003 90006 How rechargeable batteries work 90007 90002 Rechargeable batteries power devices the same way that disposable batteries do — by chemical reactions at the positive and negative electrodes. Those reactions allow positively charged ions to move from one electrode to the other inside the battery, and negative electrons to move through the wires in the circuit, producing a current. 90003 90002 But with rechargeable batteries, plugging your charger into an external power source forces these chemical reactions to happen in reverse.The positive ions (Li 90021 + 90022 in lithium ion batteries) recombine with electrons at the surface of the negative electrode, ready to start all over again when the battery is connected to a circuit. 90003 A typical lithium-ion rechargeable battery. The battery consists of a positive electrode (green) and a negative electrode (red), with a layer (yellow) separating them. When in use, lithium-ions (Li +, blue) travel from the negative electrode (anode) to the positive (cathode). During charging, the process is reversed and lithium ions are transferred back to the anode.90024 (Getty) 90025 90006 Charge away: lithium batteries do not have ‘memory’ problems 90007 90002 Back in the day, we all dutifully let our phones and seven-kilogram laptops go totally flat before recharging to avoid the dreaded battery ‘memory’ problem — where batteries held less and less charge over time if you recharged them before they were fully flat. 90003 90006 How to get the most out of lithium ion batteries: 90007 90032 90033 Do not fully discharge them — it shortens their lifespan.90034 90033 Their chemistry does not work over about 45 degrees Celsius, and operating at high temp shortens their life. 90034 90033 If storing your device, charge it to about halfway before switching it off. Full charge puts stress on the electrode material. 90034 90033 Check the manufacture date when you buy them — they start losing capacity to hold charge from day one. 90034 90041 90002 The memory problem was caused by a build-up of crystals on the electrodes in the battery, leaving less room for the chemical reactions to take place there during charging.It was a real issue for nickel-based batteries, but with their different chemistry lithium ion batteries only show a very minor effect. 90003 90002 In fact, letting them run completely flat would actually destroy them, so the batteries in your devices have a circuit that shuts them down before they reach that point. Electric cars and solar storage systems have entire control systems devoted to avoiding death by discharge for individual batteries. 90003 90002 So recharge your devices whenever you like — but try to give them a full charge (let the battery go into the red) every now and then to recalibrate your battery level reading.90003 90002 Complete discharge is not the only enemy of lithium batteries — heat can also be pretty lethal for them. 90003 90006 … but they do occasionally blow up 90007 90002 The chemical reactions that are at the heart of all batteries generate some heat, and lithium-ion batteries have made headlines when that heat gets out of control and they catch fire — most recently in hoverboards and e-cigarettes. But they’ve also been behind fires in Boeings, Tesla electric cars and laptops in the past 10 years.90003 90002 Manufacturers manage the heat with control systems, venting valves and fans to monitor and regulate the temperature the batteries are working at, and product recalls if things get out of hand. 90003 90002 The fire / explosion risk is not restricted to lithium ion batteries. Lead-acid (car) batteries, cans of petrol and all other energy dense materials can explode too. 90003 90002 But the push to make portable batteries lightweight adds an extra risk to lithium ion batteries. Components like the separators that keep the battery’s positive and negative electrodes apart are built thin to keep battery weight down, but if they get pierced a short circuit can form between the electrodes and quickly heat things up.A spark from the short can set off a fire, and a build-up in pressure as the heat goes up can literally make the battery explode. 90003 90006 Lithium batteries do not age gracefully 90007 90002 From the moment they’re made, lithium ion batteries start losing their ability to store charge and generate a voltage over time. It’s called ageing, and it happens whether they’re being used or not, so check the date of manufacture when you buy a lithium ion battery. 90003 90002 The ageing is caused by chemical changes at the electrodes.The positive electrode is not a solid lump — it’s made of microscopic particles of a lithium-based material. Over time those particles coalesce together forming bigger lumps, so there’s less surface area for the lithium-releasing reaction when the battery is being used (discharging). 90003 90002 And recharging does not send 100 per cent of the lithium ions back to the negative electrode — some ions always get permanently stuck to the positive electrode. So over time there are fewer positive lithium ions ‘in play’ in the battery.90003 90006 Environmental issues 90007 90002 Like all pieces of technology, lithium batteries come with the usual mining / manufacturing / processing baggage as part of their environmental impact. 90003 90002 In terms of toxicity to humans, lithium ion batteries are only half as toxic as lead-acid batteries per unit of energy. The biggest ticket item is the cobalt and nickel in the positive electrode (cathode) in some batteries, and the solvents used in making the electrodes. Keeping the batteries out of landfill by using a recycling program is the best way to stop these toxins from leaching into waterways.90003 90002 From a greenhouse emission standpoint, their energy-heavy manufacture means lithium ion batteries take a long time to recoup the energy that went into making them, so maximising the battery’s lifespan — avoiding excess heat and keeping the charge topped up — is important. 90003 90002 And with the biggest lithium deposits in some pretty stunning country in South America (Bolivia and Chile), there are concerns about the environmental damage done by mining. 90003 90006 The next small thing: alternatives to lithium ion batteries 90007 90002 There’s no shortage of technological breakthroughs in the battery world — aluminium batteries, lithium-air batteries and redox flow batteries are all technologies that show lots of promise.90003 90002 But it’s a long road from exciting results in the laboratory to large scale manufacture and use. It took lithium ion batteries 20 years to go from a 1970s lab to commercial product, and another 15 years to really dominate the market. 90003 90002 That’s longer than the lifespan of any existing rechargeable batteries, so for now at least, lithium ion batteries (and their more expensive lithium polymer cousins) are the go in the domestic world. 90003 90002 90087 Thanks to Associate Professor Anthony O’Mullane, chair Electrochemistry Division — Royal Australian Chemical Institute.90088 90003 90006 Want more science from across the ABC? 90007 90092 Science in your inbox 90093 90094 Get all the latest science stories from across the ABC. 90003.